- Chapter 7 - Enthymeme: Aristotle on the logic of persuasion*
- Enthymeme: Definition and Examples | martesupba.tk
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Its purpose is to influence the audience, and allow them to make Part 2: The Enthymeme. Id be justified in resisting the thesis. The difference between enthymemic probability and syllogistic certainty becomes even clearer Both the hypothesis statement and the thesis statement answer the research question of the study.
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When he writes to the Corinthian congregation he speaks as part of a close-knit community, sharing its fears and its joys along with its responsibilities.
Chapter 7 - Enthymeme: Aristotle on the logic of persuasion*
Paul does not think he is just giving a one-shot speech, but rather that he is delivering during his lifetime, through God, an eschatological message of salvation and eternal life. I shall not pursue the passage from Paul further, since others here can do that much better than I. My reason for discussing him has been simply to lay out some principles of religious argumentation as they might be taken up, for example, by another saint, St. Anselm, writing in the eleventh century of the common era.
The whole world to which he writes is different from the world of Paul. A thousand years had passed, and there had been no second coming of Christ. The monastery Anselm heads at Bec, in Normandy, follows the Benedictine rule of the time, requiring that all the hundred and fifty psalms be chanted aloud each week Ward Besides the canonical psalms, the monks also chant a whole host of other psalms, scripture passages, and commentaries, making their days and nights a continual cycle of prayer.
Thus for a new community, and a new millennium, Anselm proposes a new form of religious argumentation, based apparently on the demonstrative syllogism.
Enthymeme: Definition and Examples | martesupba.tk
In the Proslogion , on the other hand, he makes clear from the start that he is not proceeding on any rationalistic basis. On this basis the Proslogion then begins, and in chapters two through four comes to the famous statement that God cannot be thought not to be. The reasoning is short and elegant, as would befit a demonstrative syllogism, and it proceeds from premises Anselm is confident his monks will immediately recognize as true. Still, does Anselm really intend the premises in his deductions to stand alone, and, even if he did, would they be able to do so?
But how can this be? If God is greater than can be thought, how is anyone able to think of him? Isolating one part of the book as a piece of logic loses the rhetorical force of the work as a whole. For Anselm is not only a more than competent logician, he is also a master of classical rhetoric.
W Southern; cited in Henry For a full understanding the Proslogion thus needs to be studied comprehensively, not only in terms of its message but also its speaker and its audience. Yet understanding this book as a prayer seems to make nonsense of it as a proof. A closer look at the entire work, however, resolves the confusion. In a preface Anselm tells how he came to write the book.
His previous meditation of this kind, the Monologion , he says, he wrote at the request of the monks of his abbey, to provide for them a prayer they could use in their daily meditations, so that they would be able to grasp the interconnection of various Christian doctrines. The Proslogion is the outcome of that struggle. The speaker is to be the individual monk reading aloud the meditation in his cubicle. Three key claims are made in this short preface: first, that the Proslogion is fundamentally different in approach from the earlier Monologion; second, that this difference consists in the Proslogion making only one argument; and third, that the point of view from which the Proslogion is written is that of a person striving to elevate his mind to contemplate God and seeking to understand what he already believes.
The Monologion may be more complex, but if complexity counts against the unity of a train of reasoning, the Proslogion itself cannot be said to be very unified. The difference between the two books consists not so much in a difference in number of deductive arguments as in their fundamental purpose. As the titles indicate, they even belong to different literary genres.
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Anselm makes the individual proofs as strong as possible, but he includes them not for their own sake but as part of a larger plan of elevating the soul to a vision of God. As Anselm Stolz has shown, an address to God in prayer is the goal of every proof. The Proslogion appeals to the emotions as well as to the mind, and it challenges the one who meditates to abandon old ethical ways.
Finally, the book is enthymeme because that is the only category that deals at the same time with proof to mind, heart, and will, to logos, pathos, and ethos. Once the concept of argument is allowed its full Aristotelian scope, including not only the demonstrative or dialectical syllogism but also the rhetorical enthymeme, there is no longer any reason to classify the book in any other way.
The clue to the organization of the book is to be found in the sections of poetic prose that occur at critical points in the argument. What these prayers illustrate is that Anselm expressed emotions freely and subtly in poetry. Evidently the monastic practice of meditative chanting of psalms throughout the day and night created a context in which poetic prose became a natural way of expression. I am following here the division of the book proposed by Stolz, with one major modification. My proposal, therefore, is that the book divides, after the preface, into three parts chapters one through thirteen, fourteen through eighteen, and nineteen through twenty six.
The following chapters move away somewhat from argumentation to express convictions in poetic prose, leading to the emotional turning point in chapter eighteen. Briefly put, the argument of the Proslogion interweaves logical demonstration with emotional expressions of, first, grief and then finally joy, so that both logos and pathos reinforce each other and each contributes to a narrative of the ascent of the soul to God.
Aristotle, Anselm, and Paul If the Proslogion is rhetorical argumentation in the tradition of Aristotle and his Greek and Latin followers, why does it differ so widely from them in arrangement? How does a pupil of the Rhetorica ad Herennium come to compose an argument that seems to lack every standard part of a persuasive speech? Part of the answer is that these parts are there, although not in a usual way. The only difference is that it is the monk, not Anselm, who will actually be delivering the speech.
That preface also serves as a narratio , stating the theme of the argument that will follow. The opening prayer, in chapter one, works as a partitio to lay out the outline of the speech, but so subtly that it may pass unnoticed. Although it looks as if there cannot be a peroratio at the end summing up all what has been shown, because so many theses have been proposed, the speech does conclude by reaching the goal of its one argument. Anselm has clearly done his homework using whatever handbooks of classical rhetoric were on hand.
Another part of the answer has to be that the stock outline for a courtroom, parliamentary, or public occasion speech, as found in the handbooks, simply would not fit the occasion. Difference between thesis and enthymeme kidakitap com Dawn Barnes Dissertation thesis basic differences.
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